Contact: John Parker, DNREC Emergency Prevention and Response Section, 302-739-9405; or Michael Globetti, DNREC Public Affairs, 302-739-9902
Delaware productivity up 31%; releases down 9%
Toxics Release Inventory marks 25th year showing effectiveness of anti-pollution efforts
DOVER (Nov. 16, 2012) – DNREC’s compilation of the annual Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) data and reports for 2011 from Delaware’s industrial facilities shows a significant decrease in reported emissions compared to 2010 despite increasing industrial productivity – and a continued trend in reduction in environmental releases and pollution since the first data was collected for 1987.
In this 25th year of TRI data collection from facilities, the 2011 data continues to reflect the effectiveness of anti-pollution efforts by both industry and government regulatory programs in decreasing emissions. Since 1990 Delaware facilities have reduced on-site releases of their original TRI reportable chemicals by 91 percent. The year 1990 is typically used as a base year over 1987, since the TRI reporting requirements were phased in over the first several years. Delaware facilities have also reduced the total of on-site releases of the original chemicals, the chemicals added in 1995, and the electric generating facilities added in 1998, by 71 percent.
For the 2011 calendar year, 63 Delaware facilities reported releases of 89 different chemicals under TRI. While average production for all TRI facilities reporting in Delaware increased 31 percent, TRI total on-site releases reported for 2011 were lower by over 9 percent compared to 2010. Reported on-site releases totaled 3.93 million pounds, down from the 4.33 million pounds reported for 2010, and down 67 percent from the 11.86 million pounds reported for 1998.
Total TRI waste for 2011, including on-site releases, transfers off-site, and on-site waste management, increased by 26 percent over 2010. However, this was still less than the 31 percent increase in average production noted above for Delaware TRI facilities. Both the increase in production and the increase in total waste were due in large part to the Delaware City Refinery coming back on line in 2011 after being idled during 2010.
“Productivity is up and emissions are down," said DNREC Secretary Collin O’Mara. “We are demonstrating in Delaware that we can have both a healthy environment and a strong economy – and we are committed to improving the environmental quality further by working with all industrial facilities to reduce toxic chemical emissions.
"2012 also marks the 25-year anniversary of the TRI program that provides easily accessible environmental information for both industry and local communities alike in Delaware and across the nation," Sec. O'Mara said.
Concerning on-site releases
A significant part of the 2011 decrease is attributable to Delaware’s efforts to reduce pollution from the energy sector. The report highlights smaller amounts of hydrochloric acid released to air by the Indian River Power Plant (NRG Energy, Inc.) and from Calpine’s Edge Moor facility. NRG and Calpine undertook measures starting in 2009 to respond to the second phase of DNREC’s multi-pollutant regulation (Reg. 1146) designed to reduce nitrogen oxide (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and mercury emissions. These measures, including installation of additional pollution controls (NRG), and conversion to natural gas fuel (Calpine), produced significant reductions in TRI reportable emissions. The NRG and Calpine actions resulted in reduced on-site emissions from all TRI chemicals reported by these two facilities by 1,073,000 pounds for 2011. In addition, the Invista Seaford facility converted to natural gas in April 2009 and is now below the TRI reporting thresholds (and thus was not required to report under TRI for 2011), and the NRG Dover Energy Center is expected to complete its conversion to natural gas in early 2013.
Restart of the Delaware City Refinery resulted in increases in on-site releases, which were offset by the larger reductions at the Indian River Power Plant and the Calpine Edge Moor Energy Center. While 2011 TRI-reported releases and waste amounts for the refinery represent an increase over the facility’s idled operations in 2010, the amounts are lower than the production years immediately prior. For 2008, the last year of full production, the refinery reported total on-site releases of 2,438,000 pounds, but only 1,145,000 pounds for 2011, a decrease of 1,292,000 pounds.
For on-site releases to air, water, and land, results from the 2011 TRI data show (amounts rounded to the nearest 1,000 pounds):
- The total amount of TRI chemicals reported as released to on-site air for 2011 decreased by 1,103,000 pounds (31 percent), compared to 2010. The largest change in this category was hydrochloric acid (HCl) aerosols released from the Indian River Generating Station, reporting 1,500,000 pounds HCl for 2011, which was 800,000 pounds less than the 2010 amount. The second largest change in release to air was reported by the Calpine Edge Moor/Hay Road Energy Center with a reduction of 265,000 pounds for HCl.
- The total amount released on-site to water increased by 630,000 pounds (105 percent). This was largely due to the nitrate compound report from the Delaware City Refinery with an increase of 594,000 pounds (156 percent) over the previous year, when the site was not in full operation. However, the amount of nitrate compounds released by the Delaware City Refinery for 2011 is significantly lower (1,176,000 pounds) than 2008 data when the facility was in full operation.
- The total amount released on-site to land increased by 68,000 pounds (32 percent). This was primarily the result of the Indian River Generating Station increases in releases to their permitted on-site landfill. While described as a release to land under TRI, the substances are secured within the landfill. The amount of TRI chemicals (mostly metal compounds) reported as sent to the on-site landfill increased by 113,000 pounds for 2011, and this was offset by a decrease of 44,000 pounds of ammonia released to land by Mountaire Farms of Delaware.
The trend for on-site release of carcinogens increased by 28,000 pounds (18 percent), for 2011, but has declined 670,000 pounds, or 78 percent, since 1998. Significant increases in on-site releases of carcinogens for 2011 were reported for vinyl acetate released to air by Formosa Plastics, lead compounds released to land by the Indian River Power Plant (secured within their landfill), and benzene released to air by the Delaware City Refinery. As noted previously, the refinery was idle for 2010, and comparing the benzene release to 2008 data shows that the refinery on-site release was up only 291 pounds (4 percent) through 2011.
On-site releases of mercury to the air reported by the four power-generating facilities are down 94 percent since 2003 from 574 pounds to 33 pounds for 2011. However, on-site releases of Persistent Bioaccumulative Toxics (PBTs), including lead and mercury, were higher by 4,600 pounds (52 percent), primarily the result of higher Indian River Power Plant disposals of lead compounds within coal ash to land. Although statewide on-site releases of mercury were up in 2011 by 41 pounds because of increases reported by Evraz Claymont Steel and the Delaware City Refinery, the Indian River Power Plant reported a reduction of 13 pounds for 2011. In recent years, a statewide reduction of 469 pounds in on-site mercury release was reported for 2009, followed by another reduction of 60 pounds for 2010.
Concerning off-site transfers:
Transfers of waste to off-site locations for treatment and disposal increased by three percent for 2011. Increases were led by recycle of n,n-dimethylformamide at Rohm & Haas, up by 1,355,000 pounds. Although the DuPont Edge Moor facility reported a decrease of 2,282,000 pounds in off-site disposal of manganese compounds, increases were slightly more than the decreases reported for 2011. Chemicals are reported as transferred to an off-site facility when they are transported away from the reporting facility for the purposes of treatment at a publicly-owned treatment works (POTW), recycle, disposal, energy recovery, or non- POTW treatment facility. Except for disposal, many of these transfers do not constitute a release to the environment and are of less immediate local concern than on-site releases.
Concerning on-site waste management:
Reported on-site waste management amounts increased by 37 percent, largely the result of reports from the Delaware City Refinery, which included increases of 9.15 million pounds in energy recovery and 11.1 million pounds in treatment amounts. Wastes may be managed on-site instead of being sent off-site for processing or disposal. On-site waste management (recycle, recovery for energy, or treatment at the facility) is the processing or destruction of chemicals in wastes that are not released and do not leave the site of the reporting facility. The largest increase reported for 2011 was 8,952,000 pounds for treatment of carbonyl sulfide at the Delaware City Refinery, and the largest decrease was 2,284,000 pounds for treatment of hydrochloric acid at the DuPont Edge Moor facility.
A national perspective:
The preliminary national 2011 TRI data was recently released by the EPA. Placing the 2011 Delaware reports alongside the 2011 EPA data provides a perspective for Delaware in the national TRI picture. This data shows that Delaware ranks 44th of the 50 states in total on-site releases for all TRI chemicals. This is 0.11 percent of all on-site releases nationwide. As of the date Delaware’s TRI inventory was released, EPA had not released the national 2011 TRI detailed data analysis. This data is expected to be released in December.
The TRI reports and data for calendar year 2011 are now available at: www.dnrec.delaware.gov/SERC/Information/Pages/PublicInformation.aspx.
The attached fact sheet provides additional details about the 2011 TRI reports.
Delaware Toxics Release Inventory
2011 Data and Reports
What is TRI?
The Toxics Release Inventory, or “TRI,” is a data set containing information reported annually since 1987 for toxic chemicals manufactured, processed, or otherwise used by certain facilities in Delaware and throughout the United States. The TRI was established in 1986 under Title III, Section 313, of the Federal Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA 313) to provide information to the public about the presence and release of toxic chemicals in their communities. Title III is also known as the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA).
Toxic release reporting was required in the reporting year 2011 for:
• 593 individual chemicals, ranging from highly toxic and persistent compounds like dioxins and mercury to relatively less toxic (per amount) and less persistent chemicals like methanol.
• 30 chemical categories, within which there are a number of chemicals, such as the 17 different chemicals in the “dioxins, furans and PCB” category).
The list of facilities that must report to the government under TRI is determined by whether they fall under one of the covered North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes. Primarily, these NAICS codes include:
· Manufacturing facilities
· Oil and coal fired electric utilities, and
· Bulk petroleum terminals.
Additional reporting requirements:
· 10 or more full time employees at the facility
· Manufacture or process an amount greater than 25,000 pounds
· Otherwise use the toxic chemical in amount greater than 10,000 pounds.
Facilities must meet all requirements in order to be required to report.
Facilities submit information to Delaware’s Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control (DNREC) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on the amount of each toxic chemical that is:
(1) Released to the environment and/or
(2) Managed on-site as waste, or
(3) Managed off-site as waste.
Data from Delaware facilities is compiled by DNREC. Reports summarizing the data are prepared and published annually by DNREC and the EPA. It is noteworthy that TRI only requires reporting of releases and waste management activities, but does not write permits or otherwise control the amounts released. The control of chemical releases is achieved separately through a variety of DNREC and EPA permits, laws and regulations.
Delaware results: On-site releases to the environment
For the 2011 calendar year, 63 facilities reported releases of 89 different TRI chemicals. Reported on-site releases to the environment were approximately 3.9 million pounds. Of this amount, approximately 2.4 million pounds were reported as released to the air, while 1.2 million pounds were released to water and 279,000 pounds were released to land. For the TRI chemicals released to the air, 66 percent was from hydrochloric acid releases, largely from coal-fired power plants (e.g., NRG Indian River in Millsboro). Total on-site releases reported for 2011 were lower by 9 percent when compared to 2010.
The total reported releases on-site to air decreased by 1.1 million pounds (31 percent), reported releases to water increased by 630,000 pounds (105 percent), and releases to land increased by 68,000 pounds (32 percent) for 2011. NRG’s Indian River Power Plant reported a decrease of 800,000 pounds of hydrochloric acid released to air as measures to comply with DNREC Regulation 1146 were implemented, and the Edge Moor/Hay Road Power Plant reported a reduction of 265,000 pounds because of conversion to natural gas.
The Delaware City Refinery reported a 594,000-pound increase in nitrate compounds released to water as the refinery restarted in 2011, and Perdue Georgetown reported a 62,000-pound increase. The Delaware City Refinery shut down its refining operations on November 20, 2009 and restarted in 2011, so on-site releases to water from that facility took a dip for 2010 and have now increased, but at 1,194,000 pounds less than reported for 2008.
The total amount released in Delaware to on-site to land increased by 68,000 pounds (32 percent). This was largely the result of an increase in the reported amounts of by-products from coal combustion secured in the Indian River Power Plant facility on-site landfill in 2011, because of variability in the metals content of the coal.
Delaware results: Carcinogens
The trend for on-site release of carcinogens increased by 28,000 pounds (18 percent), for 2011, but has declined 670,000 pounds, or 78 percent, since 1998. Significant increases in on-site releases of carcinogens for 2011 were reported for vinyl acetate released to air by Formosa Plastics, lead compounds released to land by the Indian River Power Plant (secured within their landfill), and benzene released to air by the Delaware City Refinery. As noted previously, the refinery was idle for 2010, and comparing the refinery benzene release to 2008 data shows that the benzene on-site release was up only 291 pounds (4 percent) through 2011.
Delaware results: Persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals (PBTs
Of the 63 reporting facilities for 2011, 26 reported on 11 PBT substances for a total amount of 13,596 pounds released on-site to the environment. This is up 4,647 pounds (52 percent) from the 8,949 pounds reported for 2010. The increase was almost entirely because of the increased amounts of lead compounds disposed of in the Indian River Power Plant on-site landfill and the increased amounts of lead compounds reported released to air by the Dover Air Force Base. These increases were offset by a decrease in lead compounds release to water by the Edge Moor/Hay Road Power plant. Lead compounds make up about 93 percent of all on-site releases. Since 2001, the trend of PBT on-site releases is down 56 percent.
For all PBT chemicals at all facilities, the total of on-site releases was an increase of 4,647 pounds compared to 2010. Most prominent was the 5,143-pound increase in on-site release to land of lead compounds at the Indian River Power Plant where, as noted earlier, is contained within their landfill. These changes were balanced by smaller increases and decreases at other facilities.
Delaware results: Total TRI waste
One of the three TRI categories of release and waste management - on-site releases, showed a decrease in 2011.The other two – transfers off-site and on-site waste management – reported increases compared to 2010. Analysis of Delaware 2011 toxic waste data shows that Delaware facilities reported a total TRI toxic waste amount of approximately 73.4 million pounds, a 26 percent increase from the 58.3 million pounds reported for 2010. However, this is a 26 percent decline, or 25.8 million pounds less than the 99.2 million pounds reported for 2008. The 2008 year is used as a baseline because that was the last year the refinery was in full operation. Waste amounts sent off-site for treatment and disposal increased by 353,000 pounds, or 3 percent in 2011. The largest increase was for recycle of n,n-dimethylformamide at Rohm & Haas, up by 1,355,000 pounds. This was offset by a decrease of 2,282,000 pounds in manganese compounds sent off site for disposal by the DuPont Edge Moor facility. Other smaller variations were reported as part of normal cycles of increasing and decreasing production and finding better ways to manage the waste products created at the respective facilities.
Reported on-site waste management amounts increased by 37 percent, largely the result of reports from the Delaware City Refinery, which included increases of 9.15 million pounds in energy recovery and 11.1 million pounds in treatment amounts. On-site waste management (recycle, recovery for energy, or treatment at the facility) is the processing or destruction of chemicals in wastes that are not released and do not leave the site of the reporting facility. The largest increase reported for 2011 was 8,952,000 pounds for treatment of carbonyl sulfide at the Delaware City Refinery, and the largest decrease was 2,284,000 pounds for treatment of hydrochloric acid at the DuPont Edge Moor facility.
For more information
Copies of submittals from individual facilities are available upon request. Because the program reporting requirements change each year, comparison with prior years may not be valid without proper adjustments. The 2011 TRI chemical and facility data, as well as data from earlier years dating back to 1995, is available in an easy to use on line searchable format at: http://www.dnrec.delaware.gov/SERC/Information/Pages/DataSearch.aspx
DNREC has published both technical and non-technical reports summarizing the 2011 TRI data. Reports for the 2011 data and previous years back to 1998 are available online at: http://www.dnrec.delaware.gov/SERC/Pages/Reports.aspx.
Vol. 42, No. 446